Trends in Quinoa Adoption in Marginal Areas:
An Assessment of Economic Viability and Policy Outlook
Global demand for quinoa has substantially grown seemingly due to the rich nutritional ingredients in quinoa grain and its resilience to unfavorable and harsh biotical stresses and environmental factors prevalent in marginal environments. Research evidence suggest that global quinoa production as well as the number of quinoa-producing countries have been substantially increased throughout the last few years. With intensive research trails and tests underway in new countries across the world, especially in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, researchers and policymakers are determined to upscale its commercial production. However, little is known about its economic viability to substantiate the adoption and ultimately the sustainability of quinoa production. The economic analysis carried out in this study suggests that quinoa can be highly profitable, but its economic viability largely depends on the availability of high-yielding verities, best management practices through demand-driven extension services, and reliable market information on local demand and prices. Under the most-likely production scenario, estimated net profit can reach up to AED 6,059 ($1,651) per hectare. Given the lack of quality data, the estimated net gains are simulated to assess the level of sensitivity due to potential uncertainties and volatility in key variables and assumptions. After 10,000 iterations, the results from Monte Carlo simulation reveals that the average value of simulated net gains is about AED 8,265 per hectare with no significant chances of negative profits.
quinoa production; trends in adoption; economic viability; marginal environments
Bazile, D., Baudron, F. (2015). The dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa growing in view of its high Biodiversity. In: FAO & CIRAD. State of the Art Report of Quinoa in the World in 2013 (Chapter 1.4, pp. 42–55). Rome: FAO.
Bazile, D., Jacobsen, S.-E., Verniau, A. (2016a). The Global Expansion of Quinoa: Trends and Limits. Front. Plant Sci., 7, 622. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00622
Bazile, D., Pulvento, C., Verniau, A., Al-Nusairi, M.S., Ba, D., Breidy, J., Hassan, L., Mohammed, M.I., Mambetov, O., Otambekova, M., Sepahvand, N.A., Shams, A., Souici, D., Miri, K., Padulosi, S. (2016b). Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries. Front. Plant Sci., 7, 850. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00850
Choukr-Allah, R., Rao, N.K., Hirich, A., Shahid, M., Alshankiti, A., Toderich, K., Gill, S., Butt, K.U.R. (2016). Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions. Front. Plant Sci., 7, 346. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00346
Gacemi, M.A. (2016). Introduction and assessment of Quinoa in Algeria: Field trial evaluation of eleven Chenopodium quinoa genotypes grown under Mediterranean conditions (Algeria). Algeria: National Institute of Agronomic Research. http://www.quinoaconference.com/sites/default/files/Gacemi-Algeria.pdf
Hirich, A., Choukr- llah, R.C., Jacobsen, S.E., El, L., Omari, H.E. (2012a). Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater in the production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) in Morocco. Rev. Cien. UDO Agríc., 12(3), 570–583.
Hirich, A., Choukr-Allah, R., Jacobsen, S.-E., Benlhabib, O. (2012b). Could Quinoa be an Alternative Crop of Wheat in the Mediterranean Region: Case of Morocco? Center International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes.
Hirich, A., Choukr-Allah, R., Jacobsen, S.-E. (2014). Quinoa in Morocco – Effect of Sowing Dates on Development and Yield. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 200(5), 371–377; https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12071
Jacobsen, S.-E. (2003). The Worldwide Potential for Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Food Rev. Int., 19, 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1081/FRI-120018883
Jacobsen, S.-E. (2017). The scope for adaptation of quinoa in Northern Latitudes of Europe. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 203, 603–613. https://doi.org/10.1111/jac.12228
Jellen, E.N., Maughana, P.J., Fuentes, F., Kolano, B.A. (2015). Botany, Phylogeny and Evolution. In: FAO & CIRAD. In State of the Art Report of Quinoa in the World in 2013 (Chapter 1.1, pp. 12–23). Rome: FAO.
Kerssen, T.M. (2015). Food sovereignty and the quinoa boom: challenges to sustainable re-peasantisation in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia. Third World Quart., 36, 489–507. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1002992
Koziol, M.J. (1992). Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). J. Food Comp. Anal., 5, 35–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-1575(92)90006-6
Radhouane, P.L. (2018). Quinoa as a New Crop for Salted Land in Tunisia. Int. J. Sci. Env., 7, 997–1006.
Rao, N.K., Shahid, M. (2012). Quinoa-A Promising New Crop for the Arabian Peninsula. Am.-Eur. J. Agric. Env. Sci., 12(10), 1350–1355.
Repo-Carrasco, R., Espinoza, C., Jacobsen, S.-E. (2003). Nutritional Value and Use of the Andean Crops Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa) and Kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule). Food Rev. Int., 19, 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1081/FRI-120018884
Rojas, W. (2015). Quinoa Genetic Resources and Ex Situ Conservation. In: FAO & CIRAD. In State of the Art Report of Quinoa in the World in 2013 (Chapter 1.5, pp. 56–82). Rome: FAO.
Ruiz, K.B., Biondi, S., Oses, R., Acuña-Rodríguez, I.S., Antognoni, F., Martinez-Mosqueira, E.A., Coulibaly, A., Canahua-Murillo, A., Pinto, M., Zurita-Silva, A., Bazile, D., Jacobsen, S.-E., Molina-Montenegro, M.A. (2014). Quinoa biodiversity and sustainability for food security under climate change. A review. Agr. Sust. Dev., 34, 349–359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0195-0
Scanlin, L., Lewis, K.A. (2017). Quinoa as a Sustainable Protein Source. In: Sustainable Protein Sources (Chapter 14, pp. 223–238). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802778-3.00014-7
Sepahvand, N.A. (2016). Quinoa Research and Production Prospect in Iran. International Quinoa Conference, ICBA. Retrieved from: http://www.quinoaconference.com/sites/default/files/Sepahvand.pdf
Talebnejad, R., Sepaskhah, A.R. (2018). Quinoa: a new crop for plant diversification under water and salinity stress conditions in Iran. Acta Hortic., 1190, 101–106. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2018.1190.17
Vega-Gálvez, A., Miranda, M., Vergara, J., Uribe, E., Puente, L., Martínez, E.A. (2010). Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review. J. Sci. Food Agric., 90, 2541–2547. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4158
Wright, K.H., Pike, O.A., Fairbanks, D.J., Huber, C.S. (2002). Composition of Atriplex hortensis, Sweet and Bitter Chenopodium quinoa Seeds. J. Food Sci., 67, 1383–1385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb10294.x
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.