MARKET ANALYSIS ON COCOA BEANS EXPORT: THE CASE OF GHANA AND COTE D’IVOIRE IN WEST AFRICA
The history of cocoa production in West Africa shows that commercial cocoa production began in the Gold Coast (Ghana) in the 1890s. By the 1920s, Ghana had become the world’s leading cocoa producer, accounting for over half of all production. Ghana continued to be a leading producer of cocoa until 1978, when Cote d’Ivoire topped Ghana as the world’s largest cocoa bean producer. It has since become the leading producer, with about a 40% share of global production. This study aimed to analyze the competitiveness and similarity of the Ivorian and Ghanaian cocoa sectors. Time series data (2011–2020) from FAOSTAT was used to analyze the level of competitiveness and similarity between the two largest cocoa-producing countries in West Africa. The analysis was conducted using the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Product Similarity Index (PSI), and Quality Similarity Index (QSI). The findings indicate that the two countries are strong competitors in cocoa exports and have the same quality of products. 2020 and 2017 witnessed the weakest competition between the two countries, with a similarity index of 0.53 and 0.60, respectively. It is concluded that the two economies (especially Ghana) guard against over-dependence on cocoa exports because a disruption in production would have a great shock on the economy.
cocoa beans; cocoa export; competitiveness; similarity; West Africa
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