CONTRIBUTION OF SMALL-SCALE FARMING AND LOCAL FOOD SUPPLY TO SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION AND FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA – A REVIEW
Prior to the year 1970, agriculture was the main source of livelihood and backbone of the Nigerian economy until the discovery of oil drastically decelerated its potential to sustainably maintain food security and generate significant export earnings. Despite its sudden fall in productivity, agriculture still remains the main sector providing the highest employment (70% of the population) for the populace. To tackle these problems, many policies were formulated (from 1960 to 2015) to resuscitate the sector but to no availdue to failure in tailoring suitable policies to engage small-scale farmers and address other socio-economic problems. This paper constitutes an in-depth review of agricultural production and food security in Nigeria with relative importance attributed to local food supply and small-scale farmers. The article analyzes several documents of the Nigerian Government and international organizations, such as the Food and Agricultural Organization, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Department of Agriculture and Rural Development and a number of peer-reviewed journals across various disciplines to provide a balanced interdisciplinary review. The paper concludes that food insecurity is at its peak in Nigeria and urgent attention is required in the agricultural sector to compensate for the unstable food balance in the country. There is a need for the Government to take strong measures against the food deficit situation and to support the development of the primary agriculture sector. The paper proposes viable policies that could involve smallholders, aid transformation and positively restructure the agricultural sector.
small-scale farmers; agricultural export and imports; food security; agricultural policies; Nigeria
Ahungwa, G.T., Haruna, U., Abdusalam, R.Y. (2014). Trend Analysis of the Contribution of Agriculture to the GrossDomestic Product of Nigeria (1960–2012). J. Agric. Vet. Sci., 7(1). Retrieved from: http://iosrjournals.org/ iosr-javs/papers/vol7-issue1/Version-4/J07145055.pdf
Anderson, J., Marita, C., Musiime, D., Thiam, M. (2017). Understanding Their Demand for Financial, Agricultural, and Digital Solutions. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/316661513583254475/pdf/122092- WP-PUBLIC-Working-Paper-Survey-Segmentation-ofSmallholders-Nigeria-Oct-2017.pdf
Attah, A.W. (2012). Food Security in Nigeria: The Role of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria. Afr. Res. Rev., 6(4), 27. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272328247_Food_Security_in_Nigeria_The_Role_ of_Peasant_Farmers_in_Nigeria
David, M. (2011). Global Agricultural Information Network Report. Agric. Fin. Dev. Retrieved from: https://www.nigerianseminarsandtrainings.com/ articlespg/29-gain-report-nigeria--agricultural-finance-a
Eigege, J., Cooke, J. (2016). Tracing the Roots of Nigeria’s AgriculturalDecline. Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). Retrieved from: https://csis-prod. s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/160505_ Eigege_NigeriasAgriculturalDecline_Web.pdf
Ering, S.O., Otu, J.E., Archibong, E.P. (2014). Rural Development Policies in Nigeria: A Critical Appraisal. Int. J. Edu. Res., 2(9), 307–320. Retrieved from: http://www.ijern. com/journal/2014/September-2014/27.pdf
FAOSTAT (2020). FAO statistics – Nigerian Food security Portal. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
FMARD (Federal Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development) (2001a). National Fadama Infrastructure Survey Report, Sheda-Abuja: World Bank/Projects Coordinating Unit.
FMARD (Federal Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development) (2001b). The New Nigerian Agricultural Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.g-fras.org/fr/2015-05-28-15- 50-27/australia-16.html?download=310:the-new-nigerian-agricultural-policy-2001
FMARD (Federal Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development) (2016). Agricultural Policy for Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: FMARD.
Green, A.R. (2013). Agriculture is the future of Nigeria. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www. forbes.com/sites/skollworldforum/2013/08/08/ agriculture-is-the-future-of-nigeria/#12cd8e74bc9b
Ibeanu, O. (2008). Affluence and Affliction: The Niger Delta as a Critique ofPolitical Science in Nigeria. The TwentySeventh Inaugural Lecture ofUniversity ofNigeria, Nsukka. Retrieved from: http://www.unn.edu.ng/wp-content/ uploads/2015/09/27th-Inaugural-Lecture.pdf
Ibietan, J., (2011). Public Policy making Process: Agricultural and Rural Development policies in Nigeria (1960 to date). Int. J. Stud. Human. Retreved from http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/3805/1/Dr.%20Jide%20Ibietan%205. pdf
IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) (2012). Scaling Up Note.Retrieved from: https://www. ifad.org/documents/10180/359371f0-9c0c-4d07-a87b49df00c6e66d
Igbokwe, E.J. (1983). The effect of oil production on the agricultural economy of Nigeria, 1970–1980. Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. 16518. Retrieved from: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article= 17517&context=rtd
Kolawole, S. (2009). Who wants to be a farmer? This Day (Backpage) Dec. 27.
Michael, J., Ibrahim, S.E. (2003). Agricultural Production and the EconomicDevelopment of Nigeria. J. Dev. Soc., 1(4), 71–81.
Nigeria Dairy Enterprise Initiative Final report (2007). Nigeria Dairy Enterprise Initiative Final report. USAID Grant EDH-G-00-03-00017-00 Final report. Retrieved from: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pdaci869.pdf
Onah, F.O. (2006). Managing Public Programmes and Projects. Nsukka: Great APExpress Publishers Ltd.
Oni, J.C. (2011). Tillage in Nigerian Agriculture. Retrieved from: http://iworx5.webxtra.net/~istroorg/download/Nigeria_conf_downloads/Key_Lead_Papers/Oni%20KC. pdf
PWC (Price Water House Coopers). (2016). Transforming Nigeria’s Agricultural Value Chain. A case study of the Cocoa and Dairy Industries. Retrieved from: https://www. pwc.com/ng/en/assets/pdf/transforming-nigeria-s-agricvalue-chain.pdf
Teal, F. (1983).The supply of Agricultural output in Nigeria. J. Dev. Stud., 19(1), 191–206. [Online] Available from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00220388 308421858?journalCode=fjds20
UNDP (United Nation Development Program). (2013). Roadmap Nigerian Agribusiness Supplier Development Program. Retrieved from: http://www.undp.org/content/dam/ nigeria/docs/IclusiveGrwth/UNDP_NG_RoadmapNigerianAgribussmaer2013.pdf
Wiggins, S. (2009). Can the Smallholder Model Deliver Poverty Reduction and Food Security For A Rapidly Growing Population in Africa? FAO Expert Meeting on Howto feed the World in 2050, 24–26, FAO, Rome. Retrieved from: https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/2338/FAC_Working%20_Paper_08.pdf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.