Livelihood Diversification and Income: A Case Study of Communities Resident Along The Kiri Dam, Adamawa State, Nigeria


This research analysed livelihood diversifi cation and income in resident communities along the Kiri Dam, Adamawa state, Nigeria. The specifi c objectives of the study were: to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, assess the level of livelihood diversifi cation of the respondents, analyse income of the respondents, identify factors associated with varying levels of income, and identify constraints to livelihood diversifi cation in the area. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect primary data from 120 respondents from the study area. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The results showed that the majority of the respondents were male (78%), married (76%), educated (70%), below 60 years of age (93%) and employed in agricultural activities (83%). The Simpson index of diversifi cation shows that 43% of the respondents diversify at an average level. The majority (60%) of the respondents' annual income is over ₦ 200,000. The ordinary least square estimation shows that age, marital status, education, irrigation activities, fi shing, farm size and level of diversifi cation aff ect income level in the area. The main constraints to diversifi ed livelihood in the area were a lack of basic social infrastructure, a hippopotamus menace and fl ooding. The study recommended the provision of social infrastructure and the control of hippopotamuses.


People's income; Households; Arable farm

Adebayo, A. A. (1999). Climate, sunshine, temperature, evaporation and relative humidity. In: A. L. Adebayo, A. A. Tukur (Eds.), Adamawa State in Maps (p. 20-22). Yola, Nigeria: Paraclette.

Adebayo, A. A., Yahya, A. S. (2015). Assessment of Climate Change in the Savannah Sugar Project Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria. In: 15th International Academic Conference (p. 19-28). Rome, Italy.

Adger, W. N. (2006). Climate Change and Sustainable Livelihood of Rural People in Mongolia. Ministry of Nature and the Environment of Mongolia, Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance Programme.

Ali, A. A., Usman, A. R., Saliman, T. S. (2013). Environmental Challenges and the Quest for Social Justice in Dam Communities of Nigeria. Bangl. e-J. Sociol., 10(2), 80-92.

Boateng, A., Bismark, A. A., Musa, S. Z., Samuel, K. A. (2015). Assessing the Impact of a Dam on the Livelihood of Surrounding Communities: A Case Study of Vea Dam in the Upper East Region of Ghana. J. Env. Earth Sci., 5(4), 20-26.

Carney, D. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: what contribution can we make? DFID: London.

Ellis, F. (2000). Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Ellis, F., Freeman, H. A. (2004). Rural livelihoods and poverty reduction strategies in four African countries. J. Dev. Stud., 40(4), 1-30.

Financial Derivatives Company Limited (2016). Income Inequality Skewed Wealth, Resources to Pockets of 20% of Nigerians. Retrieved October 7th 2016 from: www.thisdaylive. com/index.php./2016/06/22/report.

Haggblade, S., Hazell, P., Reardon, T. (2007). Transforming the Rural Non-farm Economy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Hussein, K., Nelson, J. (1998). Sustainable Livelihoods and Livelihood Diversification. Institute of Development Studies: Brighton.

Koczberski, G., Curry, G. N., Gibson, K. (2001). Improving Productivity of the Smallholder Oil Palm Sector in Papua New Guinea. A socio-economic Study of the Hoskins and Popondetta Schemes. Canberra: The Australian National University.
Departmental Working Paper No. 19097.

Lay, J., Mahmoud, T. O., M'Mukaria, G. M. (2008). Few opportunities, much desperation: The dichotomy of nonagricultural activities and inequality in Western Kenya. World Dev., 36(12), 2713-2732; worlddev.2007.12.003.

Loison, S. A. (2015). Rural Livelihood Diversifi cation in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review. J. Dev. Stud., 51(9), 1-17.

Mutangi, G. T., Wellington, M. (2014). Socio-cultural Implications and Livelihoods Displacement of the moved Communities as a result of the Construction of the Tokwe Mukosi Dam, Masvingo. Green. J. Soc. Sci., 4(2), 71-77.

Oluwatayo, I. B. (2009). Poverty and Income Diversification among Households in Rural Nigeria: A Gender Analysis of Livelihood Patterns (p. 1-23). Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Economicos: Maputo, Mozambique. Retrieved from:

Oni, O. A., Fashogbon, A. E. (2013). Food poverty and livelihoods issues in rural Nigeria. Afr. J. Agric. Res. Econ., 8(2), 108-135.

Reardon, T. (1997). Using Evidence of Household Income Diversification to Inform Study of the Rural Nonfarm Labor Market in Africa. World Dev., 25(5), 735-748.

Sati, V. P., Wei, D., Xue-Qian, S. (2015). Options and strategies for livelihood sustainability in mountainous region of the upper Minjiang River basin, Sichuan Province, China. Span. J. Rural Dev., 6(3-4), 45-56;

Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis (No. 72). IDS Sussex, UK.

Shalangwa, A. M. Z., Adebayo, A. A., Zemba, A. A., Bonifice, T. J. (2014). Eff ects of Kiri Dam Construction on the Economy of Lower Gongola Basin of Shelleng Local Government, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Int. J. Econ. Dev. Res. Invest., 5(1), 48-54.

Souvik, G., Verma, H. C., Panda, D. K., Nanda, P., Kumar, A. (2012). Irrigation, Agriculture, Livelihood and Poverty Linkages in Odisha. Agric. Econ. Res. Rev., 25(1), 99-105.

Sultana, N., Hossain, E., Islam, K. (2015). Income Diversification and Household Well- Being: A Case Study in Rural Areas of Bangladesh. Int. J. Bus. Econ. Res., 4(3), 172-179;

Tashikalma, A. K., Michael, A., Giroh, D. Y. (2015). Effect of Livelihood Diversifi cation on Food Security Status of Rural Farming Households in Yola South Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Adamawa State Univ. J. Agric. Sci., 3(1), 33-39.

Tidi, S. K., Jummai, A. T. (2015). Urinary schistosomiasis: Health seeking behaviour among residents of Kiri in Shelleng Local Government Area of Adamawa state. J. Env. Toxicol. Publ. Health., 1(1), 30-35.

Tukur, A. L., Mubi, A. M. (2002). Impact of Kiri Dam on the lower reaches of River Gongola, Nigeria. GeoJ., 56, 93-96.

World Commission on Dams (2000). Dams and Development: A new framework for decision making. The report of the world commission on dams, Nov. 2000. Earthscan publication ltd London and Sterling VA.

Yaro, J. A. (2006). Is deagrarianisation real? A study of livelihood activities in rural northern Ghana. J. Mod. Afr. Stud., 44(1), 125-156.

Published : 2016-12-31

Amurtiya, M., Lumbonyi, C., Abdullahi, A., Yaduma, Z., Abdullahi, A., & Olayiwola, S. (2016). Livelihood Diversification and Income: A Case Study of Communities Resident Along The Kiri Dam, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 42(4), 483-492.

Michael Amurtiya
Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria  Nigeria
Celestine Andrew Lumbonyi 
Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria  Nigeria
Aliyu Abdullahi 
Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria  Nigeria
Zacharia Buba Yaduma 
Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria  Nigeria
Abduljabbar Abdullahi 
Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria  Nigeria
Sikuru Adekunle Olayiwola 
Federal University Wukari, Nigeria  Nigeria

CitedBy Crossref

CitedBy Scopus

HTML tutorial

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.