Climate change continues to threaten humanity’s livelihoods, particularly those dependent on agriculture. Gradual changes in climate pose a significant threat to food security and sustainable agricultural productivity around the globe. This paper sought to investigate the influence of climate change knowledge on the selection of indigenous climate change adaptive strategies. The study was conducted in Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa, in 2021. Structured questionnaires were administered to 300 emerging cash crop farmers during face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to gain insight into the farmers’ knowledge of climate change. A multinomial logistic model was used to determine the influence of climate change knowledge on the selection of indigenous adaptation strategies. The study discovered that most farmers were aware of climate change and subsequently preferred crop diversification and substitution of crops as their ideal adaptation strategies. This study recommends that adaptation to climate change should be a collaborative effort among the farming community.


climate change; emerging farmers; adaptive strategies; knowledge

Abid, M., Scheffran, J., Schneider, U.A., Ashfaq, M., (2015). Farmers’ perceptions of and adaptation strategies to climate change and their determinants: the case of Punjab province, Pakistan. Earth Syst. Dyn., 6(1), 225–243. https://
Acevedo, M., Pixley, K., Zinyengere, N., Meng, S., Tufan, H., Cichy, K., Bizikova, L., Isaacs, K., Ghezzi-Kopel, K., Porciello, J. (2020). A scoping review of adoption of climate-resilient crops by small-scale producers in low-and middle-income countries. Nat. Plant., 6(10), 1231–1241.
Ali, A., Erenstein, O. (2017). Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan. Clim. Risk Manag., 16, 183–194.
Asrat, P., Simane, B. (2018). Farmers’ perception of climate change and adaptation strategies in the Dabus watershed, North-West Ethiopia. Ecol. Proces., 7(1), 7.
Below, T.B., Schmid, J.C., Sieber, S. (2015). Farmers’ knowledge and perception of climatic risks and options for climate change adaptation: a case study from two Tanzanian villages. Reg. Env. Change, 15(7), 1169–1180.
Bless, C., Smith, H.C. (2000). Fundamentals of Social Research Methods: An African Experience (3rd ed.). Juta, Cape Town.
Comoé, H., Siegrist, M. (2015). Relevant drivers of farmers’ decision behaviour regarding their adaptation to climate change: a case study of two regions in Côte d’Ivoire. Mitig. Adapt. Strat. Glob. Change, 20(2), 179–199. https://
Cui, X. (2020). Climate change and adaptation in agriculture: Evidence from US cropping patterns. J. Env. Econ. Manag., 101, 102306.
Das, U., Ghosh, S. (2020). Factors driving farmers’ knowledge on climate change in a climatically vulnerable state of India. Nat. Hazard., 102(3), 1419–1434.
Diallo, A., Donkor, E., Owusu, V. (2020). Climate change adaptation strategies, productivity and sustainable food security in southern Mali. Clim. Change, 159(3), 309–327.
Friis-Hansen, E., Bashaasha, B., Aben, C. (2013). Decentralization and implementation of climate change policy in Uganda. DIIS Working Paper No. 27.
Hassan, R., Nhemachena, C. (2008). Determinants of African farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change: Multinomial choice analysis. Afr. J. Agric. Res. Econ., 2(1).
IFAD (2010). Livestock and climate change. IFAD publishers, Rome.
IPCC (2011). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: A special report on working group I and working group II of the intergovernmental panel on climate change.
IPCC (2007). Impacts, adaptations and vulnerability. Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Jha, C.K., Gupta, V. (2016). Climate change adaptation in Indian agriculture assessing farmers’ perception and adaptive choices. In: W. Leal Filho, H. Musa, G. Cavan, P. O’Hare, J. Seixas (Eds.), Climate change adaptation, resilience and hazards. Climate change management. Springer, Cham.
LTA (Limpopo Travel Agency) (2014). Retrieved June 4th 2022 from:
Mehar, M., Mittal, S., Prasad, N. (2016). Farmers coping strategies for climate shock: Is it differentiated by gender? J. Rural Stud., 44, 123–131.
Mpandeli, S., Nesamvuni, E., Maponya, P. (2015). Adapting to the impacts of drought by smallholder farmers in Sekhukhune district in Limpopo province, South Africa. J. Agric. Sci., 7(2), 115.
Mulinde, C., Majaliwa, J.G.M., Twinomuhangi, R., Mfitumukiza, D., Komutunga, E., Ampaire, E., Asiimwe, J., Van Asten, P., Jassogne, L. (2019). Perceived climate risks and adaptation drivers in diverse coffee landscapes of Uganda. NJAS-Wageningen. J. Life Sci., 88, 31–44.
Pelham, B. (2009). Awareness, opinions about global warming vary worldwide. From publication of Gallup word, 1–2.
Piedra-Bonilla, E.B., da Cunha, D.A., Braga, M.J. (2020). Climate variability and crop diversification in Brazil: An ordered probit analysis. J. Clean. Prod., 256, 120252.
Pundo, M.O., Fraser, G.C. (2006). Multinomial logit analysis of household cooking fuel choice in rural Kenya: The case of Kisumu district. Agrekon, 45(1), 24–37.
Sarkar, S., Padaria, R.N. (2016). Farmers’ awareness and risk perception about climate change in coastal ecosystem of West Bengal. Indian Res. J. Exten. Edu., 10(2), 32–38.
Shisanya, S., Mafongoya, P. (2016). Adaptation to climate change and the impacts on household food security among rural farmers in uMzinyathi District of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Food Sec., 8, 597–608.
Shukla, R., Agarwal, A., Sachdeva, K., Kurths, J., Joshi, P.K. (2019). Climate change perception: an analysis of climate change and risk perceptions among farmer types of Indian Western Himalayas. Clim. Change, 152(1), 103–119. https://
Starkweather, J., Moske, A.K. (2011). Multinomial logistic regression Lecture notes.
STATSSA (Statistics South Africa). (2016). First quarter publication. Retrieved Jun 4th 2022 from:
Tambo, J.A., Tahirou, A. (2013). Smallholder farmers’ perceptions of and adaptations to climate change in the Nigerian savanna. Env. Change, 13, 375–388.
Wooldridge, J.M. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. MIT press: Cambridge, MA.
Wooldridge, J.M. (2010). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. MIT press.
Zoellick, R.B. (2009). A Climate Smart Future. The Nation Newspapers. Vintage Press Limited, Lagos, Nigeria.

Published : 2022-10-10


Mpho Tshikororo
University of Venda, South Africa  South Africa

CitedBy Crossref

CitedBy Scopus

HTML tutorial

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.