This study defined sustainable technical efficiency from a set of efficiency indices generated from the maximum likelihood estimation of the stochastic production functions fitted on data collected from waterleaf farms in the Uyo agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, southern Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling method was employed to choose two hundred respondents. A structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents to obtain the necessary data for the study. The empirical results revealed an average technical efficiency of 52.23% while the sustainable technical efficiency averaged 87.77% among waterleaf farmers in the zone. Determinants of Sustainable technical efficiency were identified using the Logit and Tobit models. The results of the two models were consistent and in line with the inefficiency model. Findings revealed that farmers’ age, number of female farmers, household size, farm size, farming experience, access to extension services, membership in social organization, land ownership status and non-farm income earned by farmers positively affected the sustainable technical efficiency of waterleaf farmers in the zone. On the other hand, farmers’ education, farming experience, cost of labour and value of post-harvest losses negatively affected sustainable technical efficiency. To achieve sustainable technical efficiency in waterleaf production, it is recommended that membership in social organizations should be intensified among waterleaf farmers. Also, land development is critical for the sustainability of waterleaf production in the zone. In addition, female beneficiaries should be the major target of any government intervention in waterleaf production. Training-based on-farm demonstrations, focus group discussion, advocacy and talks are preferred instead of a curriculum or formal education for waterleaf farmers in the State.


waterleaf; technical efficiency; sustainable; vegetable; Akwa Ibom State

Aja, P.M., Okaka, A.N., Onu, P.N., Ibinin, U., Urako, A.J. (2010). Phytochemical composition of Talinum triangulare (Waterleaf) leaves. Pakist. J. Nutr., 9(6), 527–530.
Akpan, S.B. (2020). Enhancing farm labour productivity: The roles of small scale waterleaf farmers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. J. Agric. Food Env., 7(3), 18–33.
Akpan, S.B., Adah, A.J., Udoh, E.J. (2017). Assessment of farm factor productivity of small scale cassava farmers in Oruk Anam local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Nig. J. Agric. Food Env., 13(1), 113–120.
Akpan, S.B., Akpan, O.D., Ernest, I.J. (2019a). Analysis of soil enhancing technology use intensity in waterleaf production in Eket agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. J. Wetland. Waste Manag., 3(1), 41–48.
Akpan, S.B., Aya, E.A., Essien, U.A., Akpan, O.D., Bassey, N.E. (2011). Analysis of total factor productivity among small-holder vegetable farmers in Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Nig. J. Agric. Food Env., 7(4), 68–74.
Akpan, S.B., Ebong, V.O. (2021). Agricultural land use and population growth in Nigeria. The need for synergy for a sustainable agri-cultural production. J. Agribus. Rural Dev., 3(61), 269–278.
Akpan, S.B., Ini-mfon, V.P., Samuel, J.U., Edem, A.O., Ubong, E.E. (2013). Determinants of vegetable farmers’ decision to use poul-try litter in the southern region of Nigeria. J. Agric. Econ. Dev., 2(2), 077–083.
Akpan, S.B., Monday, I. (2021). Factors productivity in small scale upland vegetable production in the South – South region of Nigeria. Sci. Paper. Ser. Manag. Econ. Eng. Agric. Rural Dev., 21(1), 35–45.
Akpan, S.B., Monday, J., Okon, U.E. (2018). Factors that influence total factor productivity of Upland vegetable farmers in Oruk Anam local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. AKSU J. Agric. Econ. Exten. Rural Dev., 1(1), 129–137.
Akpan, S.B., Okon, U.E. (2019). Vegetable consumption paradox: Has domestic consumption match the international recommended minimum standard in Nigeria? Int. J. Adv. Agric. Sci., 4(3), 1–7.
Akpan, S.B., Okon, U.E., Ernest, I.J. (2019b). Factors influencing the utilization of organic and inorganic fertilizer in small scale wa-terleaf production in Eket agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Int. J. Agric. Rural Dev., 22(1), 4019–4026.
Akpan, S.B., Okon, U.E., Udo, U.J., Akpakaden, I.S. (2020). Analysis of income inequality and poverty incidence among oil palm farmers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Ife J. Agric., 32(2), 102–117.
Akpan, S.B., Udo, U.J., Akpan, P.J. (2019c). Analyses of the gross margins and commercialization of manure and fertilizer based wa-terleaf (Talinum triangulare) farmers in Nigeria. Agric. Res. Econ.: Int. Sci. E-J., 5(4), 5–31.
Akpan, S.B., Udoh, E.J., Aya, A.E. (2010). Fertilizer–manure substitution among arable crop farmers in Akwa Ibom State: empirical evidence. Glob. J. Agric. Sci., 9(1), 37–40.
Amusat, A.I., Adedokun, M.A., Tairu, H.M., Amuzat, A.I., Adaramola, K.A., Olabamiji, S.O. (2018). Proximate analysis phy-to-chemical screening and mineral composition of water leaves (Talinum triangulare) harvested in Oyo state college of agriculture and technology igboora. SSRG Int. J. Agric. Env. Sci., 5(2), 7–10.
Aye, G.C., Mungatana, E.D. (2011). Technological innovation and efficiency in the Nigerian maize sector: Parametric stochastic and non-parametric distance function approaches. Aggreko: Agric. Econ. Res. Pol. Pract. South. Afr., 50(1), 1–24.
Batesse, G.E., Coelli, T.J. (1995). A model for technical inefficiency effects in a stochastic frontier production function for panel data. Emp. Econ., 20, 325–332.
Borza, M. (2104). The connection between efficiency and sustainability – a theoretical approach. Proc. Econ. Fin., 15, 1355–1363.
Brundtland, G.H. (1987). Report of the world commission on environment and development: our common future. Oxford University Press, New York, United Nations.
Bulagi, M. (2020). Estimating efficiency levels and their determinants among small-scale sugarcane growers in Northern KwaZu-lu-Natal, South Africa. J. Agribus. Rural Dev., 2(56), 155–162.
Cochran, W.G. (1963). Sampling Techniques (2nd Ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Enete, A.A., Okon, U.E. (2010). Economics of waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Field Act. Sci. Rep., 4, 22nd March 2010,
Ikewuchi, C.C., Ikewuchi, J.C., Ifeanacho, M.O. (2017). Bioactive phytochemicals in an aqueous extract of the leaves of Talinum triangulare. Food Sci. Nutr., 5(3), 696–701.
Mensah, J.K., Okoli, R.I., Ohaju‐Obodo, J.O., Eifediyi, K. (2008). Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7(14), 2304–2309.
Nya, E.J., Okorie, N.U., Eka, M.J. (2010). An economic analysis of Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Production/farming in southern Nige-ria. Trends Agric. Econ., 3(2), 79–93. DOI: 10.3923/tae.2010.79.93.
Oke, F.O., Olorunsogo, G.O., Akerele, D. (2021). Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) and mass media usage on technical efficiency of fish farming in Ogun State, Nigeria. J. Agribus. Rural Dev., 2(60), 143–150.
Olugbire, O.O., Sunmbo, O., Olarewaju, T.O. (2021). Contribution of small-scale farming and local food supply to sustainable produc-tion and food security in Nigeria – A review. J. Agribus. Rural Dev., 1(59), 91–99.
Udoh, E.J. (2005). Technical Inefficiency in Vegetable Farms of Humid Region: An analysis of Dry season vegetable farming of urban women in South-South zone, Nigeria. J. Agric. Soc. Sci., 1, 80–85.
Udoh, E.J., Akpan, S.B. (2007). Measuring technical efficiency of waterleaf (Talinum triangular) production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Am. Euras. J. Agric. Env. Sci., 2(5), 518–522.
Udoh, E.J., Etim, N.A. (2008). Measurement of farm-level efficiency of waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) production among city farm-ers in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. J. Sust. Dev. Agric. Env., 3(2), 47–54.
Uko, A.E., Iren, O.B., Effa, E.B., Isong, I.A. (2019). Comparative efficacy of organic manures for improved performance of waterleaf (Talinum fructicosum (L) Juss.) in the humid tropical rainforest. Int. J. Sci., 8(8), 1–10. DOI:

Published : 2023-01-04


Sunday Brownson Akpan
Akwa Ibom State University, Nigeria  Nigeria
Etopobong Johnson Antia 
Akwa Ibom State University, Nigeria  Nigeria
Veronica Sebastian Nkanta 
Akwa Ibom State University, Nigeria  Nigeria

CitedBy Crossref

CitedBy Scopus

HTML tutorial

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.