Socioeconomic determinants of income among rural women in Enugu state, Nigeria

implication for achieving first sustainable development goal


Poverty is a global challenge highly concentrated among rural women; thus, women are poorer than their male
counterparts. This fact disposes them to a high level of food insecurity, low purchasing power and poor well-being. Understanding the socio-economic factors responsible for the income level of rural women is a prerequisite to boosting their economic status and, in turn, lowering the poverty rate among them. Therefore, this study describes the rural women income and identifies the factors influencing their level of income.
Data were collected primarily from 120 rural women and analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The study reveals that rural women face a low annual income (USD 626.25) which could dispose them to a high poverty level. Agriculture (practised on a small scale) remains the primary source of income for rural women as it had the largest share (78.8%) of their annual income. Cooperative membership, access to credit facilities and education are the identified socio-economic factors enhancing the yearly income of
rural women. At the same time, rural women age and their household size are the inhibiting factors affecting their annual income. To achieve the first Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations, there is a need to support rural women through financial assistance and adult education centres. This would enhance their productivity and income and improve their food security status and well-being.


rural women; low-income; poverty; SDG; wellbeing; agriculture

Aidoo-mensah, D. (2018). Determinants of income patterns of tomato farmers in ghana. Review of Agricultural and Applied Economics Acta Oeconomica et Informatica, 11(2), 58–70.
Akanbi, O.S., Oloruntola, D.S., Olatunji, S.O., Mukaila, R. (2020). Economic analysis of poultry egg production in kwara state, Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Allied Research, 4(3), 57–71.
Baiyegunhi, L.J.S. (2013). Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 114 (2), 123–132.
Beegle, K., Christiaensen, L. (2019). Accelerating poverty reduction in Africa (eds). Washington, DC: World Bank.
Bihari, B., Singh, M., Bishnoi, R., Mishra, P.K. (2019). Issues, challenges and strategies for doubling the farmers ’ income in India – A review. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 89(8), 1219–1224.
British Council (2012). Gender in Nigeria report: Improving the lives of girls and women in Nigeria, 2nd edition, British Council, Nigeria.
Egwue, O.L., Agbugba, I.K., Mukaila, R. (2020). Assessment of rural households food insecurity during covid-19 pandemic in South-east Nigeria. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(12), 182–194.
Fadipe, A.E.A., Adenuga, A.H., Lawal, A. (2014). Analysis of income determinants among rural households in Kwara state , Nigeria. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 12(4), 400–404.
Human Development Report (2020). The next frontier: Human development and the Anthropocene. United Nations Development Programme. 1-396 ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5.
IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) (2020). Nigeria. The context. Retrieved December 20 2019 from
Kryszak, L., Matuszczak, A. (2019). Determinants of Farm income in the European Union in New and Old Member States. A Regional Study. Annals of the Polish Association of Agricultural and Agribusiness Economists, 11(3), 200–211.
Kwaghe, P.V, Ibrahim, A., Mojirode, E.A. (2009). Socio-economic determinants of income among cowpea farmers in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 8(2), 163–167.
Mafimisebi, T. E. (2008). Determinants and uses of farm income from the cassava enterprise in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 24(2), 125–130.
Mukaila, R., Falola, A., Omotesho, O.A. (2020). Food security status: its drivers and coping strategies among vegetable farming households. Cercetări Agronomice În Moldova, 53(4), 414–425.
Mukaila, R., Obetta, A.E., Awoyelu, F.E., Jachinma, C. (2021). Marketing analysis of vegetables: the case of carrot and cucumber marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 9(2), 346–351.
National Bureau of Statistics (2020). 2019 Poverty and Inequality in Nigeria: Executive Summary. Retrieved Jul 22nd 2020 from:
Nzabakenga, A., Feng, L.X., Yaqin, H. (2013). Agricultural income determinants among smallholder farmers : case of Northern Part of Burundi. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 3(11), 780–787.
Obetta, A.E., Mukaila, R., Onah, O.G., Onyia, C.C. (2020). Challenges of melon processing among women processors in Enugu-Ezike Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 8(11), 2421–2425.
Omotola A.M., Kabir K.S. (2015). Assessing income inequality in North-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Poverty, Investment and Development, 16, 33-39.
Purnamadewi, Y.L., Firdaus, M. (2018). Analysis of income determinants among households in the upland shallot production centerin Malang district, Indonesia. 2nd International Conference on Food and Agricultural Economics, 27-28th April 2018, 68–78. Turkey: Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Turkey.
Schoch, N., Lakner, C. (2020). The number of poor people continues to rise in sub-Sahara Africa, despite a slow decline in the poverty rate. World Bank Blogs. Retrieved Sep 2nd 2020 from:
SFL (Sustainable Food Lab) (2017). Enabling smallholder farmers to improve their incomes. White Paper: Improving Incomes Challenge. Sustainable Food Lab and Business Fights Poverty
Tenzin, G., Otsuka, K., Natsuda, K. (2013). Impact of social capital on poverty: a case of rural households in Eastern Bhutan. RCAPS Working Paper (RWP)-13004. Ritsumelkan Center for Asia Pacific Studies.
Urgessa, T. (2015). The determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Economics, 14(2), 63–92.

Published : 2021-12-28

Mukaila, R., Falola, A., & Akanbi, S.-U. (2021). Socioeconomic determinants of income among rural women in Enugu state, Nigeria. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 62(4), 363–370. Retrieved from

Ridwan Mukaila
University of Nigeria, Nsukka  Nigeria
Abraham Falola 
University of Ilorin, Nigeria  Nigeria
Sheu-Usman Oladipo Akanbi 
University of Ilorin  Nigeria

CitedBy Crossref

CitedBy Scopus

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.