AWARENESS, PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR PRO VITAMIN ‘A’ GARRI: EVIDENCE FROM A RURAL AREA OF OYO STATE, NIGERIA


Abstract

The energy exercised at combating Vitamin A deficiency is a crucial feat to public health challenge among vulnerable niche of people in developing nations. Effort to ameliorate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, bio-fortified cassava processed to garri which encompasses more pro-vitamin ‘A’ carotenoids than the white cassava has been presented to such areas. This study therefore examined the awareness, perceptions and willingness to pay for Pro-vitamin ‘A’ garri in Oyo state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect data from 150 sampled respondents and analysed using descriptive statistics and double-hurdle model. Results revealed that about 47.5% of the respondents are aware of the availability of pro-vitamin ‘A’ garri but have low level of awareness. However, 67.3% of the consumers are aware of pro-vitamin A’’ garri from agricultural extension agents, radio and friends. The maximum, minimum and average amount the consumers were willing to pay for pro-vitamin ‘A’ garri per kilogram was ₦500 ($1.39), ₦160 ($0.44) and ₦220.08 ($0.61) respectively. The double hurdle model showed that income, other income sources and awareness (agricultural extension agents and friends) exerted significant and positive influence on consumers’ willingness to pay for pro-vitamin ‘A’ garri. Similarly, education and radio awareness significantly and positively influenced the amount willing to pay for one kilogram of pro-vitamin ‘A’ garri while household size exerted a significant and negative influence. The study therefore advocate for nutrition education as an important tool in communicating the nutritional and health benefits of bio-fortified crops and also an important factor that affects acceptability of bio-fortified crops.

Keywords

Awareness, Perception, Pro-vitamin ‘A’ garri, Willingness to pay

Adekunle, C. P., Akerele, D., Adekunle, A. K., Amodemaja, T. S. (2016). Consumers’ willingness to pay for organic leafy vegetables in Abeokuta southwest Nigeria: evidence from double bounded dichotomous choice approach. Nigerian journal of agriculture, food and environment, 12(1), 17-23.
Akinpelu, A.O., Amamgbo, L.E.F., Olojede, A.O., Oyekale, A.S. (2011). Health implications of cassava production and consumption. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR), 11(1): 118-125.
Burke, W. J. (2009). Fitting and interpreting Cragg's tobit alternative using Stata. The Stata Journal, 9(4), 584-592.
Cardoso, A. P., Mirione, E., Ernesto, M., Massaza, F., Cliff, J., Haque, M. R., Bradbury, J. H. (2005). Processing of cassava roots to remove cyanogens. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18(5), 451-460.
Cragg, J. G. (1971). Some statistical models for limited dependent variables with application to the demand for durable goods. Econometrica (pre-1986), 39(5), 829.
Danso-Abbeam, G., Setsoafia, E. D., Ansah, I. G. K. (2014). Modelling farmers investment in agrochemicals: the experience of smallholder cocoa farmers in Ghana. Research in Applied Economics, 6(4), 1-15
De Steura, H., Blancquaertb, D., Strobbeb, S., Fengc, S., Buyssea, J., Stoved, C., Lambertd, W., Van Der Straetenb d., Gellyncka, X. (2016). Consumer acceptance and willingness-to-pay for genetically modified foods with enhanced vitamin levels. In Genetically modified organisms in food: production, safety, regulation and public health (pp. 195-206). Elsevier Academic Press.
Egesi, C., Mbanaso, E., Ogbe, F., Okogbenin, E., Fregene, M. (2006). Development of cassava varieties with high value root quality through induced mutations and marker-aided breeding. NRCRI, Umudike Annual Report, 2006, 2-6.
Ezeh, C. I., Anyiro, C. O., Obioma, N. Q., Maduagwu, O. C. (2012). Demand Structure and the Consumption of Garri in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2(6), 273-278.
Food and Agriculture Organization. (2013). Save and Grow: Cassava: a guide to sustainable production intensification. 2013, 6-18. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Food and Agriculture Organisation, IFAD, and World Food Programme (2015). The State of Food insecurity in the World. FAO, Rome.
Gabre-Madhin E, Barret CB, Dorosh P. (2003). Technological change and price effects in agriculture: Conceptual and comparative perspectives. (No. MTID Discussion Paper No. 62, IFPRI).Washington, DC, USA
Government of Oyo State. (2018). Official website of Oyo State Government: Our history. Available at: http://www.oyostate.gov.ng/about-oyo-state/our-history/. (Accessed: April 20, 2018).
Green, A. S., Fascetti, A. J. (2016). Meeting the vitamin A requirement: the efficacy and importance of β-carotene in animal species. The Scientific World Journal, 2016.
Greiner, T. (2017). Combatting Vitamin A deficiency: overcoming obstacles to optimize the food-based approach. World Nutrition, 8(2), 151-206.
Guerrero, V. (2007). Una prueba de bondad de ajuste para la distribución logística. Tesis de Maestría. Colegio de Postgraduados. Postgrado de Socioeconomía, Estadística e Informática Economía. Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México.
Ilona, P., Bouis, H.E., Palenberg, M., Moursi, M., Oparinde, A. (2017). Vitamin A Cassava in Nigeria: Crop Development and Delivery. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 17(2): 12000-12025
Jin, J., Wailes, E. J., Dixon, B. I., Nayga, R. M., Zheng, Z. 2014. Consumer acceptance and willingness to pay for genetically modified rice in China. In Agricultural and Applied Economics Association’s 2014 AAEA Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN July 27-29, 2014.
Katona, P., Katona-Apte, J. (2008). The interaction between nutrition and infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(10), 1582-1588.
Kennedy, G., Nantel, G., Shetty, P. (2003). The scourge of “hidden hunger” global dimension of micronutrient deficiencies, Journal of Food Nutrition and Agriculture, 32, 8 – 16.
Khan, M., Damalas, C. A. (2015). Farmers' willingness to pay for less health risks by pesticide use: A case study from the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan. Science of the Total Environment, 530, 297-303.
Kuku, O., Mathiassen, A., Wadhwa, A., Myles, L., Ajibola, A. (2013). Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis: Nigeria (No. 1275). International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
Kwadzo, G. T., Kuwornu, J. K., Amadu, I. S. (2013). Food Crop Farmers' Willingness to Participate in Market-Based Crop Insurance Scheme: Evidence from Ghana. Research in Applied Economics, 5(1), 1-21.
Liu, Z., Zhang, W. (2011). Which factors affect farmers’ willingness for soil testing technology adoption: A case study of Tai Lake Watershed, China.
Maziya-Dixon, B., F. Onyezili, E. B. Oguntona, E. Harris, R. Sanusi, S. Nokoe, V. Manyong, D. Almustafa, and Akinyele, I. (2006) Nigeria food consumption and nutrition survey 2001-2003 interviewers manual.
Meenakshi, J. V., Johnson, N., Manyong, V., DeGroote, H., Javelosa, J., Yanggen, D., Naher, F. (2010). How cost-effective is bio-fortification in combating micronutrient malnutrition? An ex ante assessment. World Development, 38 (1): 64-75.
Musah, A. B. (2013) Market participation of smallholder farmers in the Upper West Region of Ghana. (Unpublished Thesis). Department of Agricultural economics and Agribusiness, University of Ghana
Nakanyike, S. (2014) Farmers’ willingness to pay for virus-free sweet potato vines in Central Uganda: a case of Mpigi and Wakiso Districts. (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Makarere University, Uganda
National Population Commission (NPC). (2006). Population and Housing Census, “Population Local Government Area and Sex” http://population.gov.ng/coreactivities/surveys/dataset/2006-phc-priority-tables/
Norris, P. E., Batie, S. S. (1987). Virginia farmers' soil conservation decisions: An application of Tobit analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 19(1), 79-90.
Ogunmoyela, O. A., Adekoyeni, O., Aminu, F., Umunna, L. O. (2013). A critical evaluation of survey results of vitamin A and Fe levels in the mandatory fortified food vehicles and some selected processed foods in Nigeria. Nigerian Food Journal, 31(2), 52-62.
Okoffo, E. D., Denkyirah, E. K., Adu, D. T., Fosu-Mensah, B. Y. (2016). A double-hurdle model estimation of cocoa farmers’ willingness to pay for crop insurance in Ghana. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 873.
Oparinde, A., Banerji, A., Birol, E., Ilona, P. (2016). Information and consumer willingness to pay for biofortified yellow cassava: evidence from experimental auctions in Nigeria. Agricultural Economics, 47(2), 215-233.
Oyawole, F. P., Ajayi, O. P., Aminu, R. O., Akerele, D. (2016). Willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services in an urbanizing area in South-East Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 9(6), 793-803.
Parkes, E. Y., Fregene, M., Dixon, A., Boakye-Peprah, B., Labuschagne, M. T. (2013). Combining ability of cassava genotypes for cassava mosaic disease and cassava bacterial blight, yield and its related components in two ecological zones in Ghana. Euphytica, 194(1), 13-24.
Saltzman, A., Birol, E., Bouis, H.E., Boy, E., De Moura, F.F., Islam, Y. Pfeiffer, W.H. (2014). Biofortification: Progress towards a more nourishing future. Bread and Brain, Education and Poverty. Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City. Scripta varia 125. www.pas.va/content/dam/accademia/pdf/sv125/sv125-bouis.pdf.
Sanni, L. O., Adebowale, A. A., Awoyale, W., Fetuga, G. O. (2008). Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos State, Nigeria. Nigerian Food Journal, 26(2), 125-134.
Sanusi, R. A., Akinyele, I. O. (2006). Nigeria: Per Capita Consumption of Vitamin A-Fortified Wheat/Maize Flour, Sugar and Vegetable Oil. Unpublished report submitted to UNICEF, August 2006.
Sarris A, Karfakis P, Christiaensen L. (2006) Producer demand and welfare benefits of minimum price insurance for export crops in Tanzania. FAO commodity and trade policy research working paper. (No. 18)
Sindi, J. K. (2008) Kenya’s domestic horticulture subsector: what drives commercialization decisions by rural households? (A Published MSc. Thesis), Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics, Michigan State University
Talsma, E. F., Brouwer, I. D., Verhoef, H., Mbera, G. N., Mwangi, A. M., Demir, A. Y., Melse-Boonstra, A. (2015). Biofortified yellow cassava and vitamin A status of Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 103(1), 258-267.
Taneja, G., Pal, B. D., Joshi, P. K., Aggarwal, P. K., Tyagi, N. K. (2014). Farmers preferences for climate-smart agriculture: an assessment in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (Vol. 1337). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
Tanumihardjo, S. A., Russell, R. M., Stephensen, C. B., Gannon, B. M., Craft, N. E., Haskell, M. J., Lietz, G., Schulze, K., Raiten, D. J. (2016). Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)—vitamin A review. The Journal of nutrition, 146(9), 1816S-1848S.
Truman,P.P., Daphnes, S.T., Lateef, S., Malachy, O.A.(2004): The Global Cassava Development Strategy, A Cassava Industrial Revolution in Nigeria. The Potential for a New Industrial Crop”. International Fund for Agricultural Development Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations P. 9, 16
Uchendu, F. N., Atinmo, T., Oyewole, O. (2012). Stability of vitamin a in selected nigerian bread made from commercial fortified wheat flour. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(3), 1-6.
Ulimwengu, J., Sanyal, P. (2011) Joint estimation of farmers’ stated willingness to pay for agricultural services. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01070
Vandeveer, M. L., Loehman, E. T. (1994). Farmer response to modified crop insurance: a case study of corn in Indiana. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76(1), 128-140.
Weather2. (2017). Local Weather Forecast: Abeokuta Weather Chat. Accessed online on the 30th April, 2018 from http://www.myweather2.com/activity/weathermaps.aspx?mapid=8&id=70992
West, K. (2002). Erratum: Extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children and women of reproductive age (Journal of Nutrition (2002) 132 (2857s-2866s)). Journal of Nutrition, 132(11), 3432.
West, K.P., Darnton-Hill, I. (2008). Vitamin A deficiency. In: Semba RD, Bloem MW, editors. Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries. Second edition. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008, 377–433.
Wodjao, T.B. (2008). A double-hurdle model of computer and internet use in American households. Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Michigan
Yu, X., Abler, D. (2010). Incorporating zero and missing responses into CVM with open-ended bidding: willingness to pay for blue skies in Beijing. Environment and Development Economics, 15(5), 535-556.
Download

Published : 2020-04-02


Ogunmola, O. (2020). AWARENESS, PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR PRO VITAMIN ‘A’ GARRI: EVIDENCE FROM A RURAL AREA OF OYO STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 55(1), 61–72. https://doi.org/10.17306/J.JARD.2020.01234

Omotoso Oluseye Ogunmola  vicsteve99@gmail.com
Bowen University, Iwo. Osun State.  Nigeria


CitedBy Crossref
0

CitedBy Scopus
0

HTML tutorial

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

This journal permits and encourages authors to post items submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories both prior to and after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable, its publication in this journal.