Application of the ARDL-ECM Approach


Climate affects crop production decisions and outcomes in agriculture. From very short-term decisions about which crops to grow, when to plant or harvest a field, to longer-term decisions about farm investments, climate can positively or negatively affect agricultural systems. Although the general effects of climate change on agriculture are broadly understood, there are limited studies that model the relationship between specific crops and climate variables. The study uses the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model to analyze the sensitivity of maize yield to climate variables, fertilizer use and other non-climate variables. This paper uses annual time-series data of 47 observations spanning from 1970 to 2016. The results reveal that rainfall and temperature are important maize yield drivers in South Africa. However, if excessive, they will produce negative effects. The findings of this analysis are relevant for designing long-term interventions to mitigate the effects of climate change on maize production.


maize; climate variability; ARDL model; cointegration

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Published : 2019-12-28

Shoko, R., Belete, A., & Chaminuka, P. (2019). MAIZE YIELD SENSITIVITY TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: APPLICATION OF THE ARDL-ECM APPROAC. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development, 54(4), 363–371.

Rangarirai Roy Shoko
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Limpopo, 0727, Sovenga  South Africa
Abenet Belete 
Agricultural Research Council  South Africa
Petronella Chaminuka 
Agricultural Research Council  South Africa

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